Cryptocurrency: Definition, Objective, Working, Advantages, Disadvantages


Cryptocurrency is an encrypted data string that denotes a unit of currency. It is monitored and organized by the peer-to-peer network called a blockchain and also serves as a secure ledger of transactions. Sometimes it is also known as crypto-currency or crypto, which is in the form of currency that exists digitally or virtually and uses cryptography to secure transactions. cryptocurrency is used to store value and as a means of exchange between two parties doing business with each other.

The objective of Cryptocurrency

The main objective of using cryptocurrency is to remove all the issues that come with traditional banking and be able to fix the problems of the traditional currencies by putting the power and responsibilities in the currency holders’ hands. There are no limits to the money you can transfer using bitcoin, accounts are almost impossible to hack because you are not using a financial institution and there are no central points of failure.

Working procedure

There is no government or central regulatory authority controlling cryptocurrencies. It works outside of the banking system using different brands or bitcoin being the major player.


The cryptocurrencies are digital and completely generated through the process called mining and it is a complex process. Normally, miners are required to solve certain mathematical puzzles especially equipped with computer systems to be rewarded with bitcoins in the exchange for an ideal world and it would take a person just 10 minutes to mine one Bitcoin, but in reality, the process takes an estimated 30 days.

Buying, Selling, and Storing

Today’s users can buy cryptocurrencies from the central exchanges,  brokers, and individual currency owners or sell them to them. The exchange or platforms like a Coin base are the easiest ways to buy or sell cryptocurrencies. Digital wallets can store it. Digital Wallets may be hot or cold. Wallets with an internet connection are easy to transact, but they are vulnerable to thefts and fraud. Cold storage is very safer but it makes it hard to transact.

Transacting or investing

By using only a smartphone, you can easily transfer cryptocurrency like bitcoin between digital wallets. They can use them to buy goods or services to trade in them in exchange for cash. The easiest way to use bitcoins for purchases is the debit card type transactions which use a debit card to withdraw cash just like an ATM.


Protection from inflation 

Many currencies have caused inflation getting their value to decline with time. Almost all the cryptocurrencies at the time of their launch are released with a fixed amount. The source code specifies the amount of any coin there are only 21 million released in the world, so as the demand increases its value will also increase which will keep up with the market and in the long run prevent inflation.

Self-governed and managed 

The Governance and maintenance of any currency is a major factor in its development. The developers and/or miners store cryptocurrency transactions on their hardware, and they get the transaction fee as a reward for doing so. Because the miners are paid, they keep the transaction records accurate and up-to-date, which maintains the decentralized integrity of cryptocurrency.

Secure and private

Privacy and security have always been major concerns for cryptocurrencies. The blockchain ledger is based on different mathematical puzzles, which are very hard to decode. So it makes a cryptocurrency more secure than ordinary electronic transactions. Cryptocurrencies use pseudonyms for better security and privacy and can be associated with any user, account, or stored data.

Currency Exchange

You can buy it by using many currencies like the US dollar, European euro, British pound, Indian rupee, or Japanese yen. The various cryptocurrency wallets and exchanges make it possible to convert one currency into another by trading into cryptocurrency, across the various wallets, with minimal fees.


Cryptocurrencies play an important role in decentralization. Developers control a lot of cryptocurrencies by using those who own a significant amount of them or by a large organization that develops them before releasing them to the public. The decentralization helps to keep the currency monopoly free and to check so that no one organization can determine the flow and the value of the coin, which will keep it stable and secure are controlled by the government.


Illegal transactions 

Although the privacy and security of cryptocurrency transactions are high it’s hard for the government to track down any user by their wallet address to keep tabs on their data. Bitcoin has been used as a mode of exchanging money in a lot of illegal deals in the past such as buying drugs on the dark web. Some people also used cryptocurrency to hide their illegal earned money by transferring cryptocurrency from one place to another through mobile.

Data loss 

The developers wanted to create a virtually untraceable source code with strong hacking defenses and impenetrable authentication protocols. This would make it safer to put the money in cryptocurrencies than the physical cash or bank vaults. The wallet will remain locked away along with the number of coins inside it. This will result in the financial loss of the user.

Adverse effects

Mining cryptocurrencies requires a lot of computational power and electricity input making it highly energy-intensive. The biggest culprit in this bitcoin requires an advanced computer and a lot of energy. Ordinary computers cannot do it. Major bitcoin miners in countries like China use coal to produce electricity. This has increased China’s carbon footprint tremendously.