What is Internet of Things: Definition, Types of IoT, Working principles,  Advantages, disadvantages.


A network embedded with software, sensors, etc., is called the Internet of Things (IoT). It can be used for exchanging and connecting data to other systems on the internet. The Internet of Things (IoT) improves productivity and helps businesses to stay competitive in the future.

Types of IoT Networks

  • Cellular Network.
  • Local and Personal Area Network(LAN/PAN).
  • Low Power Wide Area Networks(LPWAN).
  • Mesh Networks.

Cellular Network

It normally uses smartphones to allow IoT devices to communicate with other devices. IoT is considered a safe and secure method. Cellular networks of this type usually cover a large area. The main advantage of using this type of network is less expensive.

Types of cellular networks

LTE-M generally requires low power and higher cost. It is used for IoT sensors and actuators via radio modules.

NB-IoT is less costly than LTE-M. It is a technology that introduces to development of a wide range of new sensors and services.


Local and Personal Area Network (LAN/PAN)

  • The network that covers short distances is called the personal area networks(PAN) and the local area networks(LAN). These two networks are normally cost-effective but the transfer of data between them is unreliable.
  • The wireless networks used in these networks are WiFi: It can be run in a local environment and access the points in a larger network. It normally connects to send data and then goes back to the sleep state. Bluetooth Low Energy(BLE): It is a more energy-efficient wireless network. Moreover, it is slower to transmit the data. Its main goal is to transmit the data in a short range.

Low Power Wide Area Networks(LPWAN)

LPWANs send small packets of information. The most commonly used IoT protocol is Long Range Wireless Area Network,(LaRaWAN) and it runs long-range. The main advantage of using this network is the low power requirement and low cost.

Mesh Network

It only focuses on connectivity components that communicate with other devices. Mesh network sensor nodes cooperate to send the data to each other to reach the gateway. It works on short-range and needs extra sensors to cover the application. The advantage of using this network can result in higher power consumption. It generally works fast and is easy to install and can able to find the most common paths to send data.

Characteristics of IoT


It is an important tool in IoT infrastructure. It should be able to connect anyone,  anywhere, anytime, and guaranteed at all times.

Intelligence and Identity

The generated data from the extraction of knowledge is very important. Normally each IoT device has its own identity and the identification helps in tracking the status at the right time.


The number of elements connected in the IoT zone is increasing day by day and it should be capable of handling the massive expansion. The data generated should be handled appropriately.

Dynamic and Self-Adapting(Complexity) 

The IoT devices should adapt themselves to exchange contexts and scenarios. It should be able to, work in different conditions and situations(morning, afternoon, night).


It cannot be homogeneous but it should be hybrid in supporting different manufacturers to function in the IoT network. It is a reality when multiple domains come together.


There is a danger when connecting personal details to the internet. So it may cause a loss to the user. In this case, data security is most important. IoT networks also are at risk therefore, safety is critical.


An IoT system integrates into four main components, namely

  • Sensors/devices.
  • Data processing.

User Interface processors/Devices

At first, sensors or devices may collect data from the environment. Multiple sensors can be joined together to be part of the device and can do more than just sense things. The mobile phone has multiple sensors and the data is being collected from the environment.


Cellular, satellite, WiFi, Bluetooth, Low-power wide-area networks (LPWAN), and Ethernet are all ways to connect sensors to the cloud. The main aim is to get the data to the cloud.

Data Processing

Once the data gets into the cloud, the software will start to perform its task. The cloud is very simple and the temperature reading is within an acceptable range, otherwise, the cloud may be complex by using the computer version to identify the objects.

User Interface

Next step, the information is made to the end-user in some ways. A user might allow them to proactively check the system. The user might want to check the video via a web browser. Depending on the IoT application, the user may perform some actions and affect the system. The user gets remotely adjusted to the temperature in the cold storage via a phone app.

Uses of IoT


GPS tracking belts and heart belts are some examples of wearable devices. Companies like Google, Apple, Samsung, and others have developed and used the Internet of Things. These are small devices with hardware measurements to collect and organize the data from the users.


The main use of sensors connected to patients is to allow the doctors to monitor the patient’s condition. By continuous monitoring alerts, the Internet of Things helps to improve patient care and prevent high-risk patients. The device also monitors oxygen levels, blood pressure, and body temperature.

Traffic monitoring

The Internet of Things is useful in vehicular traffic in large cities, contributing to smart cities. By using mobile phones to share the data from our vehicles through the applications such as Google maps to contribute the traffic monitoring and show the conditions of different routes to improve the information on different routes to the same destination and the distance.

Fleet management

Connecting the vehicles to the managers and drivers will be easier with the installation of sensors. The Internet of Things assists with geolocation, performance analysis, and fuel savings to reduce polluting emissions to the different and provides important information to improve the performance of driving vehicles.


The quality of the soil is to produce good crops and the Internet of Things helps the farmers to access the knowledge and information about the soil. The information such as soil moisture, level of acidity, temperature, and other chemical characteristics will help the farmers to control irrigation and make the water more efficient and discover the presence of diseases in the plants and soil.


The application of this IoT may help in the improvement of the quality of service. It is possible to automate the various interactions by implementing electronic keys. Electronic keys automate the checkout process and provide information about housekeeping assignments to enhance service.

Maintenance management

The main application of using IoT technology is precisely in maintenance management. A combination of software and the software obtained from the multifunctional tool extends the reliability and availability of physical assets. The real-time monitoring allows determining of measurements out of rano necessaoneto perform the condition-based maintenance(CBM) and Artificial Intelligence(AI) algorithms such as Machino Learning to predict the failure before it happens.

Advantages of IoT

  • Cost reduction.
  • It is more efficient and productive is high.
  • Mobility and ability to use the network.
  • Customer experience.
  • Business opportunities.

Disadvantages of IoT

  • Lack of standardization.
  • Inadequate storage capacity.
  • It is a complex system for maintenance.
  • Increased unemployed rate.
  • Security issues.

Applications of IoT

  • Traffic management.
  • Connected vehicles
  • Supply chain management.
  • Smart buildings and homes.
  • Special education.
  • Smart surveillance.
  • Automated transportation.